Mosquito Resistance to Pyrethroid

Pyrethroid based insecticides are the most common used across the world.  These formulations massively dominate the insecticide market worldwide. [1] In addition of commercial spray, they are also common for over the counter household insecticides, such as Raid (brand).[2]

The widespread use of Pyrethroid based insecticides is of a big concern, because it causes mosquitoes to create resistance to it, and insecticide resistance if one of the most server issue facing mosquito control agencies. [1]

The increase in Pytheroid resistance is believed to be cause by high recurrent space spraying interventions, but also from inheritance mechanism from selective pressures caused by insecticide for personal use and controlling crop pests. [4]

Mosquitoes are developing different types of resistances to Pyrethroid, one is behavioral avoidance, such as change in feeding and resting behavior to minimize exposure to insecticides.  They are also developing resistance through series of expressions of complex groups of enzymes that increase detoxification process of insecticides (biodegradation of insecticides). Another one is by cuticular thickening that reduces insecticides uptake by means of metabolic detoxification.  The thicker cuticles will slow the insecticides absorption rate.[1]

Insecticide resistance is already widespread and there is an urgent need to find new and improved tools for mosquito control. [3]

  1. Amelia-Yap Zheng Hua, Chen Chee Dhang, Sofian-Azirun Mohd, Low Van Lun. “Pyrethroid resistance in dengue vector Aedes aegypty in Southeast Asia: present situation and prospects for management.”, National Center for Biotechnology Information

  1. “Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids.”, United States Environmental Protection Agency

  1. “Insecticide resistance.” , World Health Organization

  1. Nkya Theresia Estomih, Akhouayri Idir, Kisinza William, David Jean-Phillippe. “Impact of Environment on Mosquito Response to Pyrethroid Insecticides” Facts, Evidences and Prospects.”, Science Direct.

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